George Orwell

autor

George Orwell
Jeho bestsellery sa dostali do učebníc. 1984 aj Zvieracia farma. Svoj pseudonym si zvolil podľa rieky. Vlastným menom sa volal Eric Arthur Blair, narodil sa 25. Júna 1903 v Indii a poznáme ho pod menom George Orwell.

Narodil sa v rodine koloniálneho úradníka, ktorý pracoval v štátnych službách pre Odbor s opiátmi. Jeho rodina patrila do typickej strednej vrstvy. Keď sa s ním a s jeho dvomi sestrami matka presťahovala do Oxfordshir v Anglicku, rodina sa rozpadla. Svoj pseudonym si zvolil podľa rieky Orwell, ktorá tam preteká.
Keď mal šesť rokov, rodičia ho poslali do malej anglickej školy v Henley, učitelia ho odporučili do St Cyprian's School, v Eastbourne kde získal štipendium. Neskôr vyštudoval prestížnu súkromnú strednú školu Eton.

Po škole slúžil v Indickej imperiálnej polícii v Barme od roku 1922 až do 1927. Práve službe sa vrátil späť do Anglicka a začal sa živiť ako novinár a esejista. Spočiatku žil ako tulák v najchudobnejších vrstvách Paríža a Londýna. Intenzívne politické a sociálne nepokoje, ktoré sužovali Európu, zmenili Orwella na vášnivého socialistu, odporcu fašizmu, zástancu rovnosti a na spisovateľa.
Už v 30. rokoch napísal niekoľko románov. A Clergyman's Daughter, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Coming Up for Air, Road to Wigan Pier. V týchto knihách opisuje trápenie tých najspodnejších spoločenských vrstiev.
Po vypuknutí španielskej občianskej vojny sa do nej zapojil ako dobrovoľník, bojoval za republikánsku stranu v légiách POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificacion Marxista - sesterská protistalinistická strana nezávislej Labouristickej strany založenej v roku 1935, jej členom sa stal v roku 1938). Prežil nadšenie z fungujúceho španielskeho socialistického štátu, no čoskoro pocítil znechutenie z intríg a z fanatizmu jednotlivých zložiek ľavice. Stalinisti podporovaní Sovietskym zväzom porazili anarchistov a POUM a týmto zásahom ukončili revolúciu.
20. mája 1937 bol Orwell postrelený fašistickým ostreľovačom do krku, preto musel predčasne opustiť front. Keďže boli spolu s manželkou Eileen zatknutí za členstvo v „Trotskyit“, v júni 1937 Španielsko opustili. Neskôr boli prenasledovaní políciou, ktorá zatýkala všetkých členov POUM. O rok neskúr ochorel na tuberkulózu.
Počas vojny bol pevne presvedčený, že nastávajúci kapitalistický systém nemá šancu prežiť. Navrhol a obhajoval rozsiahle zoštátnenie majetku, obmedzenie výsad bohatých, obmedzenie maximálnych príjmov, slobodu kolóniám, avšak úplne odmietal stalinistický socializmus.

Orwell písal články do New English Weekly až do roku 1940. Počas 2. svetovej vojny sa stal členom domobrany a v roku 1941 začal pracovať pre BBC na programoch o Indii a Východnej Ázii. Po finančne príťažlivej ponuke prijal miesto v Tribune ako literárny spravodajca. Písal do pravidelnej rubriky „As I Please“.
V roku 1944 Orwell dokončil svoju antistalinistickú alegóriu Zvieracia farma, ktorá patrí k jeho najznámejším dielam. Dielo bolo publikované nasledujúci rok s veľkým úspechom. Po tejto knihe sa Orwell konečne ocitol finančne zabezpečený. Od roku 1945 sa stal vojnovým korešpondentom a neskôr pravidelne prispieval do Manchester Evening News. Bol blízkym priateľom vydavateľa a majiteľa Davida Astora, ktorého Orwellove myšlienky ho silno ovplyvňovali a tým menili smerovanie novín.

Po smrti manželky sa presťahoval na ostrov Jura a tu napísal jedno zo svojich najvýznamnejších diel 1984.
21. Januára 1950, zomrel v Londýne na tuberkulózu.

(foto: BNUJ)

viac

Állatfarm


Orwell 1943-44-ben írott művében egy farm - Mr. Jones "Major"-ja - a színhely, ahol az állatok a disznók vezetésével megdöntik az Ember uralmát, és a maguk igazgatta "Állatfarm"-on élik először szabadnak, derűsnek látszó, majd egyre jobban elkomoruló életüket. Az 1984 írójának már ebben a művében is nagy szerepet játszik a történelmi dokumentumok meghamisításának motívuma. Visszamenőlegesen megváltoznak, majd feledésbe merülnek az állatok hajdani ideológusának, az Őrnagynak eszméi, a Napóleon nevű nagy kan ragadja magához a hatalmat, és - természetesen mindig a megfelelő ideológiai magyarázattal - egyre zordabb diktatúrát kényszerít állattársaira. A kezdeti jelszó pedig "Minden állat egyenlő" - érdekesen módosul...
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12,43 € 13,08 €

La fattoria degli animali


La fattoria degli animali
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13,51 € 14,22 €

Nineteen Eighty - Four - audiokniha


Winston Smith works for the Ministry of Truth in London, chief city of Airstrip One. Big Brother stares out from every poster and the Thought Police uncover each act of betrayal. When Winston finds love with Julia, he discovers that life does not have to be dull and deadening and awakens to new possibilities. Despite the police helicopters that hover and circle overhead, Winston and Julia begin to question the Party. Yet Big Brother will not tolerate dissent - even in the mind. For those with original thoughts they invented Room 101...Nineteen Eighty-Four is George Orwell's terrifying vision of a totalitarian future in which everything and everyone is slave to a tyrannical regime. Christopher Eccleston, Tim Pigott-Smith and Pippa Nixon star in this new drama, part of BBC Radio 4's The Real George Orwell season - a Radio 4 journey that explores the disjuncture between the man who was Eric Blair and the writer who was George Orwell.
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17,29 € 18,20 €

Animal Farm - audiokniha


'All animals are equal. But some animals are more equal than others.' Animal Farm - the history of a revolution that went wrong - is George Orwell's brilliant satire on the corrupting influence of power. Mr Jones of Manor Farm is so lazy and drunken that one day he forgets to feed his livestock. The ensuing rebellion under the leadership of the pigs Napoleon and Snowball leads to the animals taking over the farm. Vowing to eliminate the terrible inequities of the farmyard, the renamed Animal Farm is organised to benefit all who walk on four legs. But as time passes, the ideals of the rebellion are corrupted, then forgotten. And something new and unexpected emerges...Tamsin Greig, Nicky Henson and Toby Jones star in this new drama, part of BBC Radio 4's The Real George Orwell season - a Radio 4 journey that explores the disjuncture between the man who was Eric Blair and the writer who was George Orwell.
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17,29 € 18,20 €

Down and Out in Paris and London


George Orwell's vivid memoir of his time living among the desperately poor and destitute, Down and Out in Paris and London is a moving tour of the underworld of society.'You have talked so often of going to the dogs - and well, here are the dogs, and you have reached them.' Written when Orwell was a struggling writer in his twenties, it documents his 'first contact with poverty'. Here, he painstakingly documents a world of unrelenting drudgery and squalor - sleeping in bug-infested hostels and doss houses of last resort, working as a dishwasher in Paris's vile 'Hotel X', surviving on scraps and cigarette butts, living alongside tramps, a star-gazing pavement artist and a starving Russian ex-army captain. Exposing a shocking, previously-hidden world to his readers, Orwell gave a human face to the statistics of poverty for the first time - and in doing so, found his voice as a writer.
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11,88 € 12,50 €

1984


The year is 1984, and life in Oceania is ruled by the Party. Under the gaze of Big Brother, Winston Smith yearns for intimacy and love – “thought crimes” that, if uncovered, would mean imprisonment, or death. But Winston is not alone in his defiance, and an illicit affair will draw him into the mysterious Brotherhood and the realities of resistance. Nineteen Eighty-Four has been described as chilling, absorbing, satirical, momentous, prophetic and terrifying. It is all these things, and more.
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17,58 € 18,50 €

The Lion and the Unicorn


George Orwell's moving reflections on the English character and his passionate belief in the need for political change. The Lion and the Unicorn was written in London during the worst period of the blitz. It is vintage Orwell, a dynamic outline of his belief in socialism, patriotism and an English revolution. His fullest political statement, it has been described as 'one of the most moving and incisive portraits of the English character' and is as relevant now as it ever has been.
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9,45 € 9,95 €

Notes on Nationalism


'The general uncertainty as to what is really happening makes it easier to cling to lunatic beliefs' Biting and timeless reflections on patriotism, prejudice and power, from the man who wrote about his nation better than anyone. Penguin Modern: fifty new books celebrating the pioneering spirit of the iconic Penguin Modern Classics series, with each one offering a concentrated hit of its contemporary, international flavour. Here are authors ranging from Kathy Acker to James Baldwin, Truman Capote to Stanislaw Lem and George Orwell to Shirley Jackson; essays radical and inspiring; poems moving and disturbing; stories surreal and fabulous; taking us from the deep South to modern Japan, New York's underground scene to the farthest reaches of outer space.
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2,38 € 2,50 €

1984


'Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.' Hidden away in the Record Department of the sprawling Ministry of Truth, Winston Smith skilfully rewrites the past to suit the needs of the Party. Yet he inwardly rebels against the totalitarian world he lives in, which demands absolute obedience and controls him through the all-seeing telescreens and the watchful eye of Big Brother, symbolic head of the Party. In his longing for truth and liberty, Smith begins a secret love affair with a fellow-worker Julia, but soon discovers the true price of freedom is betrayal. The Penguin English Library - collectable general readers' editions of the best fiction in English, from the eighteenth century to the end of the Second World War.
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9,98 € 10,50 €

Animal Farm


'All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others' When the downtrodden animals of Manor Farm overthrow their master Mr Jones and take over the farm themselves, they imagine it is the beginning of a life of freedom and equality. But gradually a cunning, ruthless élite among them, masterminded by the pigs Napoleon and Snowball, starts to take control. Soon the other animals discover that they are not all as equal as they thought, and find themselves hopelessly ensnared as one form of tyranny is replaced with another. The Penguin English Library - collectable general readers' editions of the best fiction in English, from the eighteenth century to the end of the Second World War.
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9,98 € 10,50 €

Nineteen Eighty-Four


'Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past' Hidden away in the Record Department of the sprawling Ministry of Truth, Winston Smith skilfully rewrites the past to suit the needs of the Party. Yet he inwardly rebels against the totalitarian world he lives in, which demands absolute obedience and controls him through the all-seeing telescreens and the watchful eye of Big Brother, symbolic head of the Party. In his longing for truth and liberty, Smith begins a secret love affair with a fellow-worker Julia, but soon discovers the true price of freedom is betrayal. George Orwell's dystopian masterpiece, Nineteen Eighty-Four is perhaps the most pervasively influential book of the twentieth century.
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10,93 € 11,50 €

Animal Farm - Graphic Novel


The first ever graphic novel version of Animal Farm - a Times Book of the Year 2019 Animal Farm is the story of what happens when the downtrodden animals of Manor Farm overthrow their master, and how their revolution goes horribly wrong. Now George Orwell's dark, timeless fable has been turned into a graphic novel for the very first time, illustrated in full colour by the renowned Brazilian artist Odyr to bring us a whole new work of art.
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19,90 € 20,95 €

Coming up for Air


Insurance salesman George Bowling takes a day off work to pick up a new set of teeth. He´s had a win at the races. Life should be grand. But he is stuck in a rut - portly, middle aged, with a wife and children in the suburbs - and this morning he forgot to wash the soap off his neck. In a bid to rekindle childhood memories, George returns to the village of his youth, only to be surprised by what he discovers there. Written on the eve of World War II, Coming Up for Air is a humorous, insightful look at the culture of interwar Britain - a world about to change forever...
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9,98 € 10,50 €

Complete Novels of George Orwell


George Orwell's best-known novels, Animal Farm, describing a revolution that goes horribly wrong, and Nineteen Eighty-Four, portraying a world where human freedom has been crushed, are two of the most famous, well-quoted and influential political satires ever written. The other novels in this volume also tell stories of people at odds with repressive institutions: the corrupt imperialism of Burmese Days, disaffection with materialistic society in Keep the Aspidistra Flying, the perils of modern suburban living in Coming Up for Air and surviving on the streets in A Clergyman's Daughter. All the novels brought together here display Orwell's humour, his understanding of human nature and his great compassion.
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23,28 € 24,50 €

Fascism and Democracy


'The feeling that the very concept of objective truth is fading out of the world ... this prospect frightens me much more than bombs' On the 70th anniversary of George Orwell's death, a new collection of his brilliant essays written during the Second World War Fascism and Democracy collects five brilliant examples of Orwell's writing during the darkest days of World War Two. Grappling with the principles of democracy and the potential of reform, the meaning of literature and free speech in times of violence, and the sustainability of objective truth, Orwell offers a compelling portrayal of a nation where norms and ideals can no longer be taken for granted. Like the best of Orwell's writing, these essays also serve as timeless reminders of the fragility of freedom.
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2,80 € 2,95 €

Penguin Readers Level 3: Animal Farm


Animal Farm tells the story of a rebellion and how it goes wrong. The animals' lives on the farm are terrible - there is not enough food, the work is hard, and animals are dying. One day, the animals kick out the farmer and start to run the farm. Soon, a group of animals - the pigs - becomes more and more important, but things are not better for most of the animals. Life for them is the same as before. Penguin Readers is a series of popular classics, exciting contemporary fiction, and thought-provoking non-fiction written for learners of English as a foreign language. Beautifully illustrated and carefully adapted, the series introduces language learners around the world to the bestselling authors and most compelling content from Penguin Random House. The eight levels of Penguin Readers follow the Common European Framework and include language activitiesthat help readers to develop key skills.
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9,03 € 9,50 €